By Jennifer Reyes, Ed.D., Educational Support Services Manager
Updated: November, 2023
California school leaders, are you confused about the LCAP’s increased or improved services requirement?
If so, you’re not alone! Read on for a breakdown of the basics of this critical LCAP component.
To begin, a charter school’s unduplicated count refers to the total number of students who belong to one or more of the groups identified for additional funding under the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF): Low Income (measured by Free/Reduced Lunch eligibility), English Learner, and Foster Youth. Unduplicated simply means that any student in one or more of these groups would only be counted once in the calculation.
The unduplicated pupil count is used to determine the amount of supplemental and concentration funds the charter school will receive under LCFF. Charter schools receive these additional funds up to a maximum of the unduplicated percentage of the school district in which they reside.
To illustrate, a charter school of 400 students may have a total of 320 unduplicated pupils. This school has 320 students who meet one or more criteria for unduplicated pupils. Rather than add together the school’s 310 students who are eligible for free/reduced lunch, its 50 English Learners, and its five foster youth, the formula counts each student just once – even those who meet more than one criteria – for a total of 320 of the 400 enrolled students, or an Unduplicated Pupil Percentage (UPP) of 80%.
Alternate UPP Example
Total student population: 4
- Student 1- Free/Reduced Lunch-eligible
- Student 2- Free/Reduced Lunch-eligible and English Learner
- Student 3- Free/Reduced Lunch-eligible and Foster Youth
- Student 4- Meets no unduplicated pupil criteria
Unduplicated Pupil Count: 3
Now, if the district the charter school resides in has an equal or higher UPP, the school will receive funds for its own full count. For example, if your UPP is 80% and the district your school resides in has a UPP of 90%, your UPP will be capped at 80%. However, if the district percentage is lower, the school will receive funding at the district percentage. For example, if your UPP is 80% but the district your school resides in has a UPP of 45%, your UPP will be capped at 45%.
Minimum proportionality refers to the proportion of supplemental and concentration funds to base funds the school receives. Districts and charter schools are required to state and justify how they have used the supplemental and concentration funds to increase or improve services for the unduplicated student population by at least the proportion of additional funds received.
For example, if a school receives $10,000,000 in total LCFF revenue, and based on its unduplicated student population receives $1,000,000 in supplemental and concentration funding, then its Minimum Proportionality Percentage (MPP) would be 10%. This school needs to demonstrate how it has increased or improved services for its unduplicated student population, in quantity or quality, by at least ten percent.
All other LCFF Funding (less TIIG & Transportation): $10,000,000
Supplemental and Concentration Funds: $1,000,000
MPP ($1,000,000/$10,000,000): 10%
How can a charter school best demonstrate that it has increased or improved services for its unduplicated pupils? In the LCAP, each action or service must be identified as contributing or not contributing to the increased/improved services requirement. Those contributing actions/services are then identified as being applied school-wide or limited to the unduplicated student population.
Increased or Improved Services Section Requirements
Here are the items a charter school must include in the LCAP under DIISUP:
- The dollar amount of funds generated by unduplicated students.
- The Minimum Proportionality Percentage (MPP) reflecting the proportion of funds generated by unduplicated pupils.
- If enrollment for unduplicated pupils is above 55%, for services that are applied schoolwide, include a description of how the services are principally directed and effective. For unduplicated counts below 55%, for services that are applied schoolwide, include a description of how services provided are the most effective use of funds to meet the goals of the unduplicated pupils. Provide the basis for this determination, any alternatives considered, plus supporting theory, experience, or research.
A complete explanation for schoolwide actions will include:
- Needs, conditions, circumstances
- Describe the action/service
- How the action relates to the needs
- Intended outcome for the group of students
- How the action will produce the intended outcome
Concentration Grant Add-On:
- Amount and description of how funds will be used to increase staff providing direct services to students.
Examples of Actions and Services
Some examples we have seen of actions and services targeting unduplicated pupils:
- Restorative justice and bullying prevention programs
- Academic counseling and college preparedness resources
- Training on how children respond to trauma
- Training on social emotional learning and culturally relevant instruction
- Mental health services
- Intervention programs, mentors, tutors
- Methods for differentiating instruction
- Arts education, field trips, sports, camps
- Connecting families to community resources
Get Organized and Share Your Great Work!
A charter school or district needs to be able to show, through its LCAP, how it is appropriately utilizing the additional funds received to support unduplicated pupils. Recent news coverage has spotlighted both charter and district examples where funds are underutilized or unaccounted for in LCAPs. A March 2023 report by Public Advocates and ACLU Southern California found that 23% of LEAs under-budgeted these funds, and 52% failed to utilize all their funding for high-needs students. In our experience with schools, there are often many innovative approaches and programs in place to serve unduplicated pupils, and our work together is a matter of organizing the information to meet the LCAP requirements and sharing success stories.
Our experts are here to help you make the LCAP an actionable tool for your charter school community!
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